Wild Animal Conservation Law of the People's Republic of China was released in 1988, and it was amended in 2004, 2009, revised in 2016, and amended in 2018. This law includes the protection of wild animals and their habitat, the management of wild animals, and the liability. The wild animal in this law refers to “rare and endangered terrestrial and aquatic wild animals, and terrestrial wild animals of important ecological, scientific and social value.” Species of wild animals under national conservation are divided into wild animals under Grade-I and Grade-II conservation in the national priority conservation list of wild animals. Besides that, the local governments can publish the local priority conservation list to cover other animals beyond the national list. There are Implementing Regulations on the Protection of Terrestrial Wild Animals and on the Protection of Aquatic Wild Animals.
Smuggling on rare and endangered animals and their products prohibited from import and export, illegal fishing, illegal hunting, and illegal trade are banned by the Criminal Law in China.
In February 2020, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress released the Decision to Comprehensively Prohibit the Illegal Trade of Wild Animals, Break the Bad Habit of Excessive Consumption of Wild Animals, and Effectively Secure the Life and Health of the People. The Decision bans the activities of hunting, trade, transportation, and eating wildlife animals. In April 2020, Shenzhen became the first city to ban the meat-eating of cats and dogs. And Zhuhai became the second city following Shenzhen to ban dog and cat meat-eating in the middle of April. The Wildlife Conservation Law is under revision and calling for comments in November 2020.
Read more about Animal Law in China and the 2020 Updates.
In Indonesia, Article 9(3) of Law No. 18 provides that the exploitation of genetic resources of wild animals shall correspond to the regulations of law concerning the conservation of natural resources and the ecosystem. The Government has a right to allow raising wild animals as livestock if their population is stable.
Regulation No. 95, Law No. 18, Act No. 5 also regulate the trade of wildlife products and provide the protection of endangered species of animals. Article 21 of Act No. 5 prohibits catching, injuring, killing, possessing, caring for, transportation, and trade of protected animals and their parts. However, Article 36 allows the utilization of wild animals, including for the purposes of marketing, exhibition, hunting, breeding, etc.
In Iran, Article 50 of the Constitution provides that “all legal and real persons have a duty to protect the environment and prohibits all activities, economic or otherwise, that may result in irreparable damage to the environment.”
The Law on Hunting and Fishing requires a license to hunt or fish. Later on, in 1975, the Environmental Protection Law was enacted providing that the Department of Environment and the High Council for Environmental Protection shall establish a system of supervision and monitoring wildlife and marine resources, and establish limitations for hunting in certain protected areas. In 2015, Iran reported to the Convention on Biological Diversity that the government successfully conserved cheetahs and completed its project on activities with regard to other endangered and threatened species. In the case of any violation of the Game and Fish Laws, the punishments include fines and arrest depending on the animal hunted or the conduct itself. Moreover, the Ministry of War can revoke any issued licenses on possessing arms.
Besides the protection by the Criminal Code, the Animal Welfare Act that covering five species of wild animals, the Wildlife Preservation and Protection Act B.E. 2535 includes “all kinds of animals either terrestrial or aquatic, fowls, insects, or arthropods which naturally exist, or things which originated from or are bound by nature and able to sustain life in the forest and includes insects’ eggs of all kinds.”
The act of hunting, propagating, keeping, or trading in preserved or protected wildlife (or their carcasses) is prohibited unless it is performed by an official under the exception stipulated in Section 26 of the Act. In 2014, an amendment to the Act made the African elephant a protected species in Thailand. New penalties were included for conducting illegal trade or possessing African elephant ivory (up to 4 years imprisonment).
In 2015, Thailand also passed the Elephant Ivory Tusks Act B.E. 2558, which requires any person wishing to trade elephant ivory tusks to submit an application to the Director-General of the Department of National Parks, Wildlife, and Plant Conservation. Section 9 authorizes an official under the Penal Code to inspect and search premises or vehicles where there is reasonable cause to assume that an offense under this Act is occurring, to seize any tusks that were obtained without an appropriate permit.
The activity of illegal trafficking, killing, and raising of endangered species is prohibited in Vietnam and punished by imprisonment for up to 15 years and/or a large fine. The primary legal instrument with regard to the protection of wild animals is the Government Decree 32/2006/ND-CP. Article 5 provides that “forests, where endangered, precious, and rare species of wild plants and animals are concentrated, are considered to be special-use forests,” as well as those living outside special-use forests.
Hunting, shooting, trapping, capturing, keeping, and slaughtering endangered, precious, and rare wild animals, as well as transporting, processing, advertising, trading, using, hiding, exporting, and importing endangered, precious, and rare wild animals are also prohibited by the Decree.
Another instrument is the Law on Forest Protection and Development enacted in 2004, which prohibits illegal hunting, shooting, catching, trapping, caging, or slaughtering forest animals, illegal transportation, process, advertisement, trade, use, consumption, storage, export, or import of forest animals without an appropriate permit.
Vietnam also prohibits, through the Law on Biodiversity of the XII National Assembly of Vietnam, hunting, fishing, and exploiting wild species in specially protected areas, except for scientific research. The law is aimed at protecting endemic species, species that are prohibited from exploitation, species threatened with extinction, and wild species needing protection from exploitation in the natural area.