Animals in agriculture in Indonesia are not protected legally, like in many other countries across the globe. In Indonesia, there are certain regulations and procedural requirements related to farmed animals, such as the acquisition of the license to open and operate a slaughterhouse.
With that being said, Art. 66(1) of Law No. 18 provides the requirements that measures should be taken in the interests of animal welfare, including both physical and mental conditions in relation to capturing animals, animal husbandry, slaughter, and transportation. The same Article also requires that animals shall be free from pain, fear, or pressure during conducting such activities.
Other regulations, such as Chapter 3 of Regulation No. 95 on Veterinary Public Health and Animal Welfare provides that the five freedoms concept shall be applied in a wide variety of activities, which includes transportation, treatment, handling, and placement of animals. Art. 83(4) requires that any activities related to catching, handling, placement, maintenance, transportation, utilization, protection, slaughter, and comparison medical practices shall be done by people who have “competence in the field of animal welfare,” but the definition is too broad. It is unclear whether it is enough to have the certificate on competition of the special courses or the education in the field is required or the education together with experience will be more sufficient. Art. 86 to 99 provide more details on how to conduct the above-mentioned practices; Art. 87-88 relate to caging and housing of animals.
The five freedom concept includes:
Freedom from hunger and thirst;
Freedom from discomfort;
Freedom from pain, injury, and disease;
Freedom to express normal and natural behavior; and
Freedom from fear and distress.
Regulation No. 95 also stipulates some considerations for good practice, which includes separating sick from healthy animals, mandating cleanliness, providing medicine for sick animals, and feeding them safely, in accordance with their physiological needs (Art. 5).
The Penal Code of Indonesia contains the article related to animal cruelty, namely it sets out the conditions and parameters on penalizing acts on animal abuse. This might vary from “light maltreatment” of animals to “serious harm, death, or illness of over a week.”
Law No. 18 provides that anyone rearing animals must meet the animals’ needs in a sufficient way for feed and health and that the Government has a duty to foster the development of a domestic industry. Art. 29 contains the provision on the requirement of farmers, husbandry companies, and certain businesses to engage in activities related to rearing animals to have a husbandry business permit and to comply with the good culture procedure of rearing animals without disturbing public order and in accordance with the guidelines stipulated by the Ministry of Agriculture.
Unfortunately, the country lacks any regulations on the practice of rearing pigs, broiler chickens, egg-laying hens, and animals used in the dairy industry.
With regard to transportation, Art. 66(2)(d) of Law No. 18 states that animals shall be free from fear, pressure, and torture. Moreover, Regulation No. 95 provides that transportation should not hurt animals and lead to stress.
During slaughtering and killing, animals shall be free from pain, fear, pressure, torture, and misuse as well. Art. 66(2)(g) states that ill-treatment, torture, and misuse of animals must be avoided. But the regulations are limited by religious norms and faith of people that receive the parts of animals (Art. 61). These regulations are also suspended during various religious ceremonies, festivals, and events. As for the regular practice of slaughter, the killing shall be necessarily conducted in the slaughterhouse and must comply with the “norms of health practiced by veterinarians and welfare of the animal.” Article 61(b) of Law No. 18 on the Farming and Health of Animals requires that “the slaughtering of animals whose meat will be circulated must comply with slaughtering manner which meets with the norm of the health of veterinarian society and animal welfare.” Animals shall also be killed by veterinary force in case if the animal suffers from incurable diseases with due observance of the provision on animal welfare, and that this must be done by a veterinarian or by animal health force under the supervision of a veterinarian.